PLANETARY & DEEP SPACE SPACECRAFTS

Int.


Name Launch
Date
Rocket Weight (kg) Mission
Pioneer 5 (USA) 11-Mar-60 Thor-Able 43 kg First deep-space probe, returned data from a distance of 36.5 million km.
Mars (USSR) 10-Oct-60 Molniya 640 kg Mars probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Mars (USSR) 14-Oct-60 Molniya 640 kg Mars probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Sputnik 7 (USSR) 04-Feb-61 Molniya 640 kg Venua probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Venera 1 (USSR) 12-Feb-61 Molniya 644 kg Passed within 100.000 km of Venus but failed before encounter.
Mariner 1 (USA) 22-Jul-62 Atlas-Agena 202 kg Venus probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Venera (USSR) 25-Aug-62 Molniya 890 kg Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Mariner 2 (USA) 27-Aug-62 Atlas-Agena 203 kg First successful fly-by of Venus. Found heavy atmosphere and hot surface, no magnetic field.
Venera (USSR) 01-Sep-62 Molniya 890 kg Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Venera (USSR) 12-Sep-62 Molniya 890 kg Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Mars (USSR) 24-Oct-62 Molniya 890 kg Mars probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Mars 1 (USSR) 01-Nov-62 Molniya 893 kg Mars probe, passed within 193,000 km of Mars but failed before encounter and before mid-course correction.
Mars (USSR) 04-Nov-62 Molniya 890 kg Mars probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Cosmos 21 (USSR) 11-Nov-63 Molniya 890 kg Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Venera (USSR) 19-Feb-64 Molniya 890 kg Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Cosmos 27 (USSR) 27-Mar-64 Molniya 890 kg Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Zond 1 (USSR) 02-Apr-64 Molniya 890 kg Venus probe, passed within 100.000 km of Venus but failed before encounter.
Mariner 3 (USA) 05-Nov-64 Atlas-Agena 261 kg Mars probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Mariner 4 (USA) 28-Nov-64 Atlas-Agena 261 kg First successful fly-by of Mars. 21 pictures returned. Found cratered surface, no canals or flowing water. Mostly carbon dioxide atmosphere, 1 per cent of Earth's sea-level pressure.
Zond 2 (USSR) 30-Nov-64 Molniya 890 kg Mars probe, passed within 1.500 km of Mars but failed before encounter.
Venera 2 (USSR) 12-Nov-65 Molniya 963 kg Venus fly-by, probe failed at encounter.
Venera 3 (USSR) 16-Nov-65 Molniya 960 kg First Venus atmosphere entry, failed to return data.
Cosmos 96 (USSR) 23-Nov-65 Molniya 960 kg Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Pioneer 6 (USA) 16-Dec-65 Delta 61 kg Solar probe, orbiting Sun inside Earth's orbit.
Pioneer 7 (USA) 17-Aug-66 Delta 61 kg Solar probe, orbiting Sun outside Earth's orbit.
Venera 4 (USSR) 12-Jun-67 Molniya 1.106 kg First successful Venus atmosphere entry. Returned data to within 25 km of surface. Entry probe 383 kg.
Mariner 5 (USA) 14-Jun-67 Atlas-Agena 245 kg Venus probe fly-by, past 4.000 km from planet.
Cosmos 167 (USSR) 17-Jun-67 Molniya 1.100 kg Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Pioneer 8 (USA) 13-Dec-67 Delta 66 kg Solar probe, orbiting Sun outside Earth's orbit.
Pioneer 9 (USA) 08-Nov-68 Delta 67 kg Solar probe, orbiting Sun inside Earth's orbit.
Venera 5 (USSR) 05-Jan-69 Molniya 1.130 kg Venus atmosphere probe: 405 kg. Crushed during descent.
Venera 6 (USSR) 10-Jan-69 Molniya 1.130 kg Venus atmosphere probe, 893 lb (405 kg). Crushed during descent.
Mariner 6 (USA) 24-Feb-69 Atlas-Centaur 413 kg Mars fly-by probe, returned data and 75 pictures.
Mariner 7 (USA) 27-Mar-69 Atlas-Centaur 413 kg Mars fly-by probe, returned data and 126 pictures.
Mars (USSR) 27-Mar-69 Proton-K 3.190 kg Mars probe, failed to reach Earth orbit.
Mars (USSR) 02-Apr-69 Proton-K 3.190 kg Mars probe, failed to reach Earth orbit.
Pioneer E (USA) 27-Aug-69 Delta 67 kg Solar probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Venera 7 (USSR) 17-Aug-70 Molniya 1.180 kg Venus atmosphere entry probe: 495 kg. First successful survive to surface.
Cosmos 359 (USSR) 22-Aug-70 Molniya 1.180 kg Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Mariner 8 (USA) 08-May-71 Atlas-Centaur 1.031 kg Mars probe, failed to achieve Earth orbit.
Cosmos 419 (USSR) 10-May-71 Proton-K 4.650 kg Mars probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Mars 2 (USSR) 19-May-71 Proton-K 4.650 kg Mars probe. Returned data from orbit but lander failed to return any data.
Mars 3 (USSR) 28-May-71 Proton-K 4.650 kg Mars probe. Returned data from orbit but lander failed after reaching surface. Entry probe: 635 kg; surface payload 450 kg.
Mariner 9 (USA) 30-May-71 Atlas-Centaur 1.030 kg First successful Mars orbiter. Returned over 7,000 pictures of surface and moons.
Pioneer 10 (USA) 03-Mar-72 Atlas-Centaur 258 kg First successful fly-by of Jupiter.
Venera 8 (USSR) 27-Mar-72 Molniya 1.180 kg Venus atmosphere entry probe, 495 kg. Returned air and surface data from day side.
Cosmos 482 (USSR) 31-Mar-72 Molniya 1.180 kg Venus probe, failed to leave Earth orbit.
Pioneer 11 (USA) 06-Apr-73 Atlas-Centaur 259 kg Jupiter probe. First successful fly-by of Saturn providing detailed view of ring structure.
Mars 4 (USSR) 21-Jul-73 Proton-K 3.950 kg Mars probe, failed to achieve orbit. Returned fly-by data.
Mars 5 (USSR) 25-Jul-73 Proton-K 3.950 kg Returned data from Mars orbit.
Mars 6 (USSR) 05-Aug-73 Proton-K 3.950 kg Mars fly-by. Lander returned 150 sec of data during descent.
Mars 7 (USSR) 09-Aug-73 Proton-K 3.950 kg Mars fly-by. Lander probe failed to enter Mars atmosphere.
Mariner 10 (USA) 03-Nov-73 Atlas-Centaur 503 kg First TV pictures of Venus fly-by. Three fly-by encounters with Mercury.
Hellos 1 (US/FRG) 10-Dec-74 Titan-Centaur 370 kg Solar probe orbiting within 0.3 AU of Sun.
Venera 9 (USSR) 08-Jun-75 Proton-K 4.936 kg Venus lander. Returned data and first TV pictures from surface. Orbiter returned data. Entry sphere 3,440 lb (1,560 kg); surface payload 1,455 lb (660 kg).
Venera 10 (USSR) 14-Jun-75 Proton-K 5.033 kg Venus lander returned data and pictures from surface. Orbiter returned data. Entry sphere 3,440 lb (1,560 kg); surface payload 1,455 lb (660 kg).
Viking 1 (USA) 20-Aug-75 Titan-Centaur 3.400 kg Mars orbiter returned pictures and data. First successful Mars landing. Returned pictures and data. Orbiter 2.224 kg; lander surface weight 576 kg.
Viking 2 (USA) 09-Sep-75 Titan-Centaur 3.490 kg Mars orbiter returned pictures and data. Mars lander returned pictures and data. Orbiter 2.224 kg; lander surface weight 576 kg.
Hellos 2 (US/FRG) 15-Jan-76 Titan-Centaur 376 kg Solar probe orbiting within 0.29 AU of Sun.
Voyager 2 (USA) 20-Aug-77 Titan-Centaur 815 kg Fly-by probe of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Returned pictures and data.
Voyager 1 (USA) 05-Sep-77 Titan-Centaur 815 kg Fly-by probe of Jupiter and Saturn. Returned pictures and data. Discovered volcanoes on Io, Jupiter ring, new Saturn moons and ring structure.
Pioneer-Venus 1 (USA) 20-May-78 Atlas-Centaur 582 kg Venus orbiter, returned pictures and data.
Pioneer-Venus 2 (USA) 08-Aug-78 Atlas-Centaur 904 kg Venus bus, released four entry probes before encounter. Returned data from surface.
ICE (USA) 12-Aug-78 Delta 217 kg Originally launched as International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3). Transfer to escape trajectory and renamed International Comet Explorer. First ever comet fly-by on 2-Sep-85 of Giacobini-Zinner Comet.
Venera 11 (USSR) 09-Sep-78 Proton-K 4.450 kg Venus fly-by probe, returned data. Lander returned atmosphere and surface data, descent payload 1.600 kg.
Venera 12 (USSR) 14-Sep-78 Proton-K 4.461 kg Venus fly-by probe, returned data. Lander returned atmosphere and surface data, descent payload 1.612 kg.
Venera 13 (USSR) 30-Oct-81 Proton-K 4.363 kg Venus fly-by probe, first color pictures of surface. Conducted first soil analysis at landing site, descent payload 1.645 kg.
Venera 14 (USSR) 04-Nov-81 Proton-K 4.363 kg Venus fly-by probe, returned color pictures of landing site and conducted analysis of soil, descent payload 1.645 kg.
Venera 15 (USSR) 02-Jun-83 Proton-K 5.250 kg Venus orbiter. radar surface mapper.
Venera 16 (USSR) 07-Jun-83 Proton-K 5.360 kg Venus orbiter. radar surface mapper.
Vega 1 (USSR) 15-Dec-84 Proton-K 4.920 kg Venus lander and French atmosphere balloon probe. Halley's Comet fly-by 06-Mar-86.
Vega 2 (USSR) 21-Dec-84 Proton-K 4.920 kg Venus lander and French atmosphere balloon probe. Halley's Comet fly-by 09-Mar-86.
Sakigake (Japan) 07-Jan-85 Mu-3SII 138 kg First Japanese deep space probe. Distant Halley's Comet fly-by 11-Mar-86.
Giotto (ESA) 02-Jul-85 Ariane 1 574 kg First close encounter with a comet. Halley's Comet fly-by 14-Mar-86.
Suisel (Japan) 18-Aug-85 Mu-3SII 140 kg Japanese deep space probe. Distant Halley's Comet fly-by 11-Mar-86.
Phobos 1 (USSR) 07-Jul-88 Proton-K 6.220 kg Mars probe failed due to telemetry message error.
Phobos 2 (USSR) 12-Jul-88 Proton-K 6.220 kg Mars orbiter, contact lost before planned fly-by of the moon Phobos.
Magellan (USA) 04-May-89 Shuttle/IUS 3.475 kg Venus orbiter, radar surface and gravity field mapper. First spacecraft to lower its orbit by using planet's atmosphere (aerobraking).
Galileo (USA) 18-Oct-89 Shuttle/IUS 2.715 kg Jupiter orbiter, atmosphere probe. First fly-by of an asteroid, 951 Gaspra Oct-91 and 243 Ida Aug-93. First Jupiter atmosphere entry, returned 58 min of data. Orbiter 1.291 kg; entry probe 335 kg.
Ulysses (ESA/US) 06-Oct-90 Shuttle/IUS 371 kg Jupiter gravity assist International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM).
Mars Observer (USA) 25-Sep-92 Shuttle/TOS 2.100 kg Mars orbiter, contact lost before entering orbit.
Wind (USA) 01-Nov-94 Delta II 1.195 kg Solar probe, orbiting Sun inside Earth's orbit.
NEAR (USA) 17-Feb-96 Delta II 1.125 kg Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, placed in orbit around 433 Eros 14-Feb-00; first Eros orbit attempt failed Dec-99; asteroid Mathilde flyby Jun-97.
Mars Global Surveyor (USA) 07-Nov-96 Delta II 1.062 kg Mars orbiter. Arrived 12-Sep-97 for mapping through Jan-00.
Mars 96 (Russia) 16-Nov-96 Proton-K 6.825 kg Mars probe, failed to leave earth orbit.
Mars Pathfinder (USA) 04-Dec-96 Delta II 890 kg Mars lander, first planetary rover. Lander mass 360 kg; microrover 16 kg. Landed 04-Jul-97.
Cassini-Huygens (USA,ESA) 15-Oct-97 Titan-Centaur 5.634 kg Saturn orbiter (Cassini) and Titan probe (Huygens). Orbiter arrived at Saturn 30-Jun-2004 for start of 4-year mission. Probe successfully landed on Titan 14-Jan-2005 returning data and images. Orbiter mass 2,150 kg; probe 350 kg.
Nozomi (Japan) 03-Jul-98 M-V-3 540 kg Mars orbiter. Planned arrival was 11-Oct-99, but malfunctions delayed arrival to Dec-03. Mission abandoned Dec-03.
Mars Climate Orbiter (USA) 11-Dec-98 Delta II 629 kg Mars orbiter. Lost during attempted orbit insertion 23-Sep-99 due to navigation error.
Mars Polar Lander (USA) 03-Jan-99 Delta II 576 kg Mars lander, including Deep Space 2 microprobes. Communication lost during attempted landing 3-Dec-99. Cause of failure likely premature engine shutdown.
Stardust (USA) 07-Feb-99 Delta II 380 kg Comet flyby and sample return. Encountered Comet Wild 2 on 2-Jan-04; sample cannister successfully returned to Earth 15-Jan-06.
2001 Mars Odyssey (USA) 07-Apr-01 Delta II 725 kg Mars orbiter. Arrived 24-Oct-01 for mapping and global observations through Aug-04. On-orbit dry mass 376 kg.
Hayabusa (Japan) 09-May-03 M-V-5 530 kg Asteroid orbiter and sample return. Arrived at asteroid Itokawa Sep-05; fuel leak has put mission future in doubt. Planned sample return is Jun-10. Originally named MUSES-C.
Mars Express (ESA) 02-Jun-03 Soyuz/Fregat 1120 kg Mars orbiter & lander (Beagle 2). Orbiter arrived 25-Dec-03. Communication with lander failed, cause unknown. Orbiter mass 113 kg; lander 60 kg.
Mars Exploration Rover A (USA) 10-Jun-03 Delta II 1063 kg Mars lander & rover (Spirit). Landed 3-Jan-04 for start of 90-day mission; still operating in 2007. Lander mass 348 kg; rover 185 kg.
Mars Exploration Rover B (USA) 07-Jul-03 Delta II 1063 kg Mars lander & rover (Opportunity). Landed 24-Jan-04 for start of 90-day mission; still operating in 2007. Lander mass 348 kg; rover 185 kg.
Rosetta (ESA) 02-Mar-04 Ariane 5G+ 3000 kg Comet orbiter and lander (Philae). Scheduled arrival at Comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is May-2014 for start of 1.5-year science mission. Two asteroid flybys planned. Orbiter mass 1,200 kg; Lander mass 100 kg.
Philae (ESA) 02-Mar-04 Ariane 5G+ 100 kg Comet lander. The 85 kg Philae lander was ejected from the Rosetta probe 22 km from Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at 0835 UTC Nov 12, 2014. The lander bounced off the surface gently and settled down in another location at 1726 UTC, for a second briefer bounce that resulted in final touchdown at 1733 UTC. It is the first landing of a probe on a comet.
MESSENGER (USA) 03-Aug-04 Delta II 1100 kg Mercury orbiter. Flyby of Mercury on 14-Jan-08; orbit insertion scheduled March-2011 for start of planned 1-year mapping and science mission.
Deep Impact (USA) 12-Jan-05 Delta II 1020 kg Flyby spacecraft and impactor to study interior of Comet Tempel 1; impact successfully occured 4-Jul-05. Flyby spacecraft mass 650 kg; impactor 370 kg.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (USA) 12-Aug-05 Atlas V 2180 kg Mars orbiter. Arrived 10-Mar-06 for low-altitude science observation, site investigation for future landings, and telecommunication & navigation relay for follow-on missions.
Venus Express (ESA) 09-Nov-05 Soyuz/Fregat 1240 kg Venus orbiter. Arrived 11-Apr-06 for start of mission to study the planet's atmosphere.
New Horizons (USA) 19-Jan-06 Atlas V 478 kg Pluto-Charon fly-by probe. Scheduled arrival is mid-2015 for 5-month geological study and mapping mission.
Phoenix (USA) 03-Aug-07 Delta II 670 kg Mars lander. Landed 25-May-08 to begin 90-day mission to study the history of water and search for organic molecules in the martian arctic soil. Lander mass 350 kg.
Dawn (USA) 27-Sep-07 Delta II 1218 kg Asteroid orbiter. Scheduled arrival at Vesta is Aug-2011 and Ceres Feb-2015; to study protoplanets with goal of characterizing the conditions and processes of the early solar system.
Hisaki/SPRINT A (Japan) 14-Sep-13 Epsilon CLPS 348 kg The SPRINT-A is a space telescope that remotely observes Venus, Mars, Jupiter and other planets from its earth orbit.
Chang'e 5-T1 (China) 24-Oct-14 CZ-3C/G2 kg Lunar probe
4M (China) 24-Oct-14 CZ-3C/G2 kg Manfred Memorial Moon Mission
Hayabusa 2 (Japan) 03-Dec-14 H-2A-202 kg Space probe
DESPATCH (Japan) 03-Dec-14 H-2A-202 kg Asteroide sonde
PROCYON (Japan) 03-Dec-14 H-2A-202 kg Space probe

Ref.: #7, #37 - update: 10.01.15 Home