Missions Beyond our Solar System

International



Interplanetary missions:

Name Launch
Date
Rocket Weight (kg) Mission
Pioneer 5 (USA) 11-Mar-60 Thor-Able 43 kg First deep-space probe, returned data from a distance of 36.5 million km.
Pioneer 10 (USA) 03-Mar-72 Atlas/Centaur 250 kg On 1990 Sep 22 became first spacecraft to reach 50 AU from the Sun, heading towards Aldebaran at 2.7 AU per year.
Situation on 5 Feb 2002:
Pioneer 10 distance from Sun : 79.66 AU (1AU=149 598 000 km)
Speed relative to the Sun: 12.24 km/sec (27,380 mph)
Distance from Earth: 11.84 billion kilometers
Pioneer 11 (USA) 06-Apr-73 Atlas/Centaur 250? kg On Feb 23, 1990 become 4th spacecraft to leave solar system, heading towards Galactic centre at 2.5 AU/year; solar inclination 17.4°.
The last communication from Pioneer 11 was received in November 1995
Voyager 2 (USA) 20-Aug-77 Titan-Centaur 815 kg Left Solar system in direction of Alpha Canis Major, reaching Sirius after 358000 years. In 1993 at 36 AU from Sun at 3.1 AU/year.
As of April 13, 2010 Voyager 2 was at a distance of around 91.898 AU (13.747 billion km or 0.001443 light years) from the Sun, deep in the scattered disc, and traveling outward at roughly 3.264 AU per year. It is more than twice as far from the Sun as Pluto, and far beyond the perihelion of 90377 Sedna, but not yet beyond the outer limits of the orbit of the dwarf planet Eris.
Voyager 1 (USA) 05-Sep-77 Titan-3E/Centaur 795 kg (Dry mass) It is the first probe to leave the Solar System.
In 1993 at 50 AU from Sun, travelling at 3.5 AU/year.
On Jan 1, 2010 Voyager 1 was 112.1 AU from the Sun and Voyager 2 was 91.0 AU from the Sun.
DSCOVR 11 Feb 2015 Falcon-9 v1.1 570 kg Deep Space Climate Observatory


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